ასოცირებული პროფესორი, სწავლების მეთოდიკის დეპარტამენტი, აკაკი წერეთლის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი, ქუთაისი, საქართველო
გარემოსდაცვითი განათლების მნიშვნელობა და მისი გაუმჯობესების შესაძლებლობები
Importance of Environmental Education and Strengthening its Capabilities
(გლობალური საკითხები და თანამედროვე გამოწვევები განათლებაში)
Introduction and aim: High environmental culture of society is a valuable instrument of sustainable development. Environmental awareness raising is one of the challenges of modern education, for responding to which, one of the strategies consists in proper organization of environmental training at different stages of education.
The goal of this research is: to study the possibilities for existence and strengthening of the environmental component in the disciplinary training programs of the Faculty of Pedagogics of ATSU and compare it with the framework of the recommended programs; to assess resources and develop recommendations with a view to improving environmental education; to assess the role of informal education.
Research methodology: Desk research was mostly used, within which the following documents were used and analyzed: the educational programs and recommendation frameworks of the Faculty of Pedagogics of ATSU; various occupational standards; national goals of general education; national education plan; examination of environmental information and the education ceneter; assessing environmental education in Georgia and the reports of non-governmental organizations.
Results and implications: The environmental component is underrepresented in the disciplinary standards of primary education teachers and in the programs; resource capabilities are insufficient to meet standard requirements; it is advisable to enhance the capacities of teaching staff in the field of sustainable development; the role of informal education is weak; it is advisable to strengthen training in environmental protection related matters in the national education plans from the primary education stage.
Conclusion: Faced with insufficient number of students at the faculty of Natural Sciences, it is important to strengthen training in environmental protection related matters at the pedagogical faculties. Potentially, a primary education stage is one of the most effective links in the environmental education chain. Strengthening this component in the standard of primary education teacher and training programs, as well as enhancing the capacities of teachers in the field of sustainable development will foster to respond to this challenge.
Keywords: environment, sustainable, development, training, education.
დოქტორანტი; პედაგოგი, მაკროეკონომიკის დეპარტამენტი, ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი, თბილისი, საქართველო
Determinants of Internally Displaced Persons’ Employment Status: Case of Georgia
(პროფესიული საგანმანათლებლო პროგრამების განხორციელება – პრობლემები და პერსპექტივები)
Introduction and aim: In the early nineties 300 000 people were forcibly displaced in Georgia from the region of Abkhazia. The present study provides overview of internal displacement in Georgia from the conflict area. It analyses factors that have impact on employment status of internally displaced persons in the country, by using Probit model of regression and relying on dataset, obtained from Caucasus Research Resource Center. According to the existing literature there are many factors that have impact on employability if internally displaced people. Analyses of the given dataset revealed that in Georgia more educated people have more chance to get a job, and those who receive two or more types of financial assistance from government, are more likely to stay unemployed.
Research methodology: Testing of hypotheses based on a Probit regression model and a marginal effect of a Probit model, examining the likelihood of whether employment is dependent on different factors, such are Education, age, etc.
Results and implications: The probability of being employed rises by 16.3 percentage point for those who have higher education, and being a receiver of more than one allowance, decreases the probability of being employed by 14%.
Conclusion: The purpose if this study is to find out if there are certain factors that have impact on employability status of IDPs. The paper shows that these factors are networks, education, and labour market characteristics and legislation of a country. The impact of these factors is dissimilar in different countries. Moreover, in some countries, conflict induced displacement can be used as a source of a future prosperity, and the outcome largely depends on government politics and policies implemented.
Analyses of a given dataset revealed that in Georgia most significant factors are Education, the probability of being employed rises significantly for those who have higher education, and State financial assistance, being a receiver of different forms of allowance significantly decreases the probability of being employed. However, the sample has many limitations and for future studies it is recommended to have more fulfilled data, with more detailed information about income, employment sectors (formal/informal), etc..
Taking into account the findings of the study, we would recommend to implement programs, ensuring: improved living conditions of IDPs through executing resettlement programs; support IDP children’s integration in an education system, supply collective centers with sufficient facilities; make accessible fertile lend, and provide supply of relative equipments; in addition, some steps should be taken to give access to bank credits, in order to support business initiatives of displaced people (Tarkhan-Mouravi, 2009).
Moreover, development effective training systems in line with local labour market demand would increase likelihood of getting job for IDPs; and finally, more effective employment services should be provided, in order to increase reliance on formal channels of job-search, instead of informal, like social networks (Tukhashvili, 2012; ILO, 2016).
Keywords: internally displaced persons, employment, education, informality