ასოცირებული პროფესორი, ბიოლოგიის დეპარტამენტი, შოთა რუსთაველის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი, ბათუმი, საქართველო
ასისტენტ-პროფესორი, აგროტექნოლოგიისა და ინჟინერიის დეპარტამენტი, შოთა რუსთაველის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი, ბათუმი, საქართველო
სწავლა/სწავლებისა და კვლევის თანამედროვე მეთოდები ეკოლოგიაში
Modern Methods of Learning/Teaching and Research in Ecology
(კურიკულუმის დიზაინი: თანამედროვე პრინციპები, მეთოდები და ტექნოლოგიები)
Introduction and aim: Modern ecological researches are characterized with orienting studied objects and processes on quantitative evaluation (indicating the number of living organisms in time and space; frequency of their interaction; age and sex structure of populations; their fruitfulness and productivity; frequency of disease proliferation; environmental pollution; influence of various factors; predicting possible threats, etc.). Based on how the indicator of the studied object alters, environmental stability or velocity and direction of changes can be assessed.
Traditional ecological research methods are divided into two groups: field and laboratory. Field methods enable the researcher to study ecological phenomena directly in nature. This makes it possible to determine interrelations between organisms, species and co-societies as well as the level of bio system development and resuscitation. Field methods carry an utmost importance for ecological researches. They, on their part, encompass routine, stationary, descriptive and experimental methods. Experimental methods combine various methods of studying research object features. During the experiment, description and measuring of research object characteristics are held on other analogical objects that do not take part in the given experiment. In the ecological experiment characteristics of the studied objects in various environmental conditions are revealed. Therefore, field experiment might be continued in the laboratory. During recent years modeling methods are widely used in ecological learning/teaching and research process. Model is a helper object which is relevant to the research object. Modeling is an indirect method of practical and theoretical manipulation of the research object; we study not the object directly but an artificial or natural helper system (model), which is corresponding to the real object with its features.
Aim. The aim of our project was to study environmental condition stability and changes based on the research object alteration using traditional and modern imitative modeling methods of ecology; to determine correlation between polluted environment and the frequency of the disease proliferation.
Research methodology: For the research stationary, descriptive, sociological, routine, direct observation and imitative modeling methods were used. The advantages of modeling are revealed where the traditional research opportunities fail. All the forms of the modeling are directed towards improving the science’s theoretical status and knowledge combination on the one hand, and provides coordination of human’s practical and cognitive activities. Above mentioned methods represent key factors in ecological monitoring.
Results and implications: Stationary methods, they are used for long-term observation on one and the same object (seasonal, annual and perennial). They include description and measuring of studied objects multiple times. Descriptive methods are used for studying environmental phenomena and characteristics of the research objects through direct observation. With the help of the routine method we determine the availability of the ecological objects on the research territory; for determining the frequency of diversity and species direct observation, condition evaluation and description methods are used.
To study ecological processes and phenomena we used sociological method, in the frameworks of which we have held a survey among the population (mass, group and individual), complied questionnaires, talked to the population in order to collect statistic data and analyzed recent data of healthcare organizations. Based on this the correlation between environment pollution and disease proliferation frequency has been established.
Through the method of imitative modeling (especially using information technologies) we determined the changes in population number, environment sustainability, frequency of disease proliferation and predicted possible threats of environment pollution.
Conclusion: In conclusion, while researching stability and alteration of environmental condition as well as frequency of disease proliferation, it is vital to combined methods of ecological researches to solve theoretical and practical objectives, as given methods fulfill one another. Ecological research conclusions received through laboratory experiment needs to be verified in nature. This means that it is hard to use complex environmental factors in the lab conditions; however, it is possible to estimate the influence of one or two ecological factors. Imitative modeling is widely used in biosphere research as any model is always simplified; describes only the idea of the common process and is a simulation of the reality. However, at the same time, modeling enables us to study those processes and phenomena that are unavailable for direct observation.
Keywords: environment, stability, alteration, modeling, sustainability, diseases, pollution