ეკონომიკის აკადემიური დოქტორი, პედაგოგი, ეკონომიკის დეპარტამენტი, აკაკი წერეთლის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი, ქუთაისი, საქართველო
About Some Aspects of Illicit Trade in Cultural Goods
(თანამედროვე ეკონომიკა, ეკონომიკური პოლიტიკა და სოციალურ-დემოგრაფიული პროცესები)
Introduction and aim: Illicit trade in cultural goods is defined as the 'illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property, i.e. items being of importance for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art or science' and is characterised as ranging 'from theft from cultural heritage institutions or private collections, through looting of archaeological sites to the displacement of artifacts due to war.
Illicit in cultural goods 'fosters terrorism, money laundering, tax evasion, and organised crime'. Cultural goods have a significant economic value in the market and the trafficking of cultural goods and antiquities is estimated to be worth between US$50 million and US$150 million a year.
Research methodology: The analysis of qualitative and quantitative data is based on official reports the EPRS study on illicit trade of cultural goods; – Eurostat's updated report on money laundering; Proposal for a regulation of the European parliament and of the council on the import of cultural goods.
Results and implications: The European Union does not have common rules on the import of cultural goods. Two EU acts govern only selected areas: Regulation (EU) 116/2009 lays down rules on the export of cultural goods, and Directive 2014/60/EU governs the return of cultural objects taken unlawfully from another EU country. Furthermore, most Member States impose restrictions on imports of culture goods (e.g. requiring declarations or controls) in line with Articles 34 and 35 of Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
Conclusion: On 13 July 2017 the European Commission tabled a proposal for a regulation on the import of cultural goods, which will set out conditions and procedure for the entry of cultural goods into the customs territory of the EU.4 The Commission is also preparing a study on illicit trade in cultural goods in the EU and the new technologies available to combat it.
EU countries are the main trade partners for Georgia. Changing import-export rules on cultural goods will affect the trade balance of Georgia. That's why it's right to harmonize with the normative documents in the EU. Special attention should be paid to quantitative and qualitative indicators of imported and exported cultural goods in Georgia.
Keywords: trade partners, import, export, cultural goods